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•  WelcomeIntroduce Yourself! (good place to post pics of work)PUBLICMODERATOR4011Donovan
•  Off-Hand GlassTalk about all things Glass BlowingPUBLICMODERATOR4818glassguy
•  Warm GlassSlumping, Fusing, and Texturizing etc..PUBLICMODERATOR184sunrise refractory
•  Stained GlassStained Glass TalkPUBLICMODERATOR41nitikasnv
•  EtchingSpecific Talk about Etching GlassPUBLICMODERATOR283Donovan
•  Flame WorkingFlame / Torch WorkPUBLICMODERATOR104Kathleen Elliot
•  EnamelingEnamelingPUBLICMODERATOR113Donovan
•  CastingAll about CastingPUBLICMODERATOR85sunrise refractory
•  Equipment BuildingAnnealers, Kilns, Furnaces, Warmers, Benches, etc etc.PUBLICMODERATOR348Donovan
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•      ArchitecturalAll things ArchitecturalPUBLICMODERATOR00
•      The Glass BizGet down to Business!PUBLICMODERATOR52jimoerike
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Steve Beckwith

registered: GMT - 06/15/2015
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Go To: Subject: Color Rod for sale
Listed below are the part numbers, weights and description of rod that I have left. My career in glass blowing is officially over and I am cleaning out. I would like $675 plus actual shipping. Contact

Part # Kilo descriotion
Q62 .69 Opal White
Q61 .99 Extra Emanel White Opaque
K2061 .32 Extra Enamel White Opaque
Q19 .64 Gold Topaz Transparent
Q141 .44 Roma Red
K150 .25 Altrosa
K66 .49 Opal Saltrosa
#? .27 Raspberry
K67 .24 Opal Orange
K2121 .45 Opal Orange
K69 .33 Red
K2140 .35 Orange Transparent
W3710 .08 Orange Transparent
K60 .10 Koralrot Opaque
Q142 .16 Red
K2140 1.7 Yellow Orange Transparent
K2002 .28 Gold Ruby
Q6 .56 Salmon Pink Transparent
K2006 .7 Aurora
K2013 .42 Amythest Blue
K142 .2 Neurot
Q232 .5 Cranberry Pink
K2212 .34 Brilliant Gold
Q12 .45 Red Purple Transparent
K2045 .46 Mittelblau
K2026 .27 Smaragelgrun
Q28 .3 Pure Green Transparent
K2020 .32 Brilliant Gelb
Q219 .38 Yellow Green Transparent
K2091 .56 Lapis
K83 .42 Blue?
? .48 Delfblau
? .7 Purple Transparent
Q40 .61 Caribbean Blue
Q215 .66 Gold Brown Transparent
? .38 Iris Blue
K235 .33 Smoke Blue
Q5107 .29 Turquoise Blue Transparent
#10 .39 Veilchenblau
#77 .37 Yolk? Yellow
Q14 .36 Deep Hyacinth Violet
K2040 .12 Aqua Leicht
? .11 Lime Green Opaque

I also have approx 15 Lb of cobalt that I made myself using Spruce pine 87 with erbium and cobalt carbonate. Very dense color.
DATE: GMT - 06/15/2015 | 03:53 PM    

Donovan Brooke

Donovan Brooke
registered: GMT - 05/09/2007
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Go To: Subject: Re: High Alumina Refractory Application In Glass Industry
Okay, while this may be on topic.. I think that is enough posts like this.. we get it.. sunrise supplies these things. :-)

DATE: GMT - 06/12/2015 | 07:15 PM    


registered: GMT - 04/15/2015
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Go To: Subject: High Alumina Refractory Application In Glass Industry
Aluminium Oxide or alumina (Al2O3) is one of the most versatile of refractory ceramic oxides and finds use in a wide range of applications. Alumina refractories are the part of alumina- silica group of refractories. Different from fire clay refractories, high Alumina refractories normally have Al2O3 content of more than 45 %.

The raw material base for these refractories are different than the fire clay bricks. For the production of high Al2O3 refractories, both natural raw materials (such as kyanite, sillimanite, andalusite, and bauxite etc.) as well as synthetic materials (sintered mullite, fused mullite, calcined alumina, sintered corundum, and fused corundum etc,) are used.

Alumina (Al2O3) has the physical stability such as melting temperature, hardness, resistance to abrasion, and high mechanical strength. The material has the same chemical composition but have a different crystal structure which is α- Al2O3, β-Al2O3 and γ- Al2O3. The melting point, refractoriness, corrosion resistance and strength of alumina refractories increase with the increase in the Al2O3 content.

Based on the content of alumina, high alumina refractory is classified into 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 85%, 90% and 99%.

Refractories with 90 % and 99 % Al2O3 are among the highest strength and erosion resistant refractories. They can be used for temperatures greater than 1800℃。The most widely used alumina refractory with more than 90% Al2O3 content used in glass furnaces is Fused cast Alumina Block and Alumina Bubble block. There are three types of Fused cast Alumina Block: α Alumina, β Alumina and α-β Alumina. Fused cast Alumina Block α Alumina is an ideal product for the lower temperature zones of the glass melting furnaces due to its high density, superior corrosion resistance and low blister potential. β Alumina is the best material for molter crown, port crown, and feeder channel due to its high resistance to alkali vapor and excellent thermal shock resistance. α-β Alumina is widely used in working tank, feeder channels, superstructures and lipstone due to its excellent corrosion resistance against molten glass and no contamination to molten glass under 1350 ℃. Alumina Bubble block has low bulk density, excellent insulating properties and high hot strengths. These features make it an excellent insulating material that can withstand exceptionally high temperatures. It is always used as back-up insulation behind other refractories.

High alumina refractory with about 70% Al2O3 contains mullite as a major phase. It is made of bauxite. It can be used for temperatures greater than 1750℃. Mullite brick and high alumina brick belong to this group. Mullite brick is characterized by good high temperature resistance and good thermal shock resistance, which comes into being mullite through calcine with clay, high alumina materials and ceramics. It is mainly used in fibrous glass furnace. High alumina brick is made of high-quality bauxite clicker. It features high chemical corrosion resistance and high refractoriness. It is usually used in hot areas in glass melting tanks without glass contact.

Refractories containing 50 % and 60 % Al2O3 exhibit improved refractoriness over fireclay products. High alumina insulating brick is a new type of lightweight insulating material which contains approximately 48% alumina,mullite and glass phase or corundum. It has advantages such as high porosity, small volume density, good insulation effect, high mechanical intensity, small thermal conductivity and long service life. It is widely used in insulating layers of glass furnaces. Sillimanite brick is a kind of refractoriness which made by sillimanite and other minerals. And silimanite can be transformed to be mullite under more 1500℃ high temperature. It is mainly used in rider arches, forehearth and bushing for fiber glass furnaces.

Sunrise supplies all kinds of alumina refractories including fused cast alumina block, Alumina Bubble block, Mullite brick, High alumina brick, High alumina insulating brick, sillimanite brick, etc..
DATE: GMT - 06/10/2015 | 08:46 AM    


registered: GMT - 04/15/2015
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Go To: Subject: Selection Of Refractory Materials For The Cooling Zone Of Glass Furnaces
The cooling zone is for cooling the glass liquid evenly to the molding temperature. Its structure is similar to that of the melting zone, but the requirement for refractory materials is different.

In the cooling zone, the temperature is lower and the corrosion is not so severe as that of the melting zone. The glass liquid is withdrawn from the tank at the outer end of this zone to the molding zone. Refractory materials used in this zone are required not to contaminate the glass liquid.

As fused cast alumina block α-β does not contain ZrO2, it is not stable at high temperature. However, as it contains only 1-2% glass phase, it has better corrosion resistance than fused cast AZS block under 1350℃, so it is the ideal refractory material for the cooling zone. Fused cast AZS block 33# is also used in this zone. Other refractory materials used include α-β Al2O3 ramming mass and silica brick.

Fused cast alumina block α-β, fused cast AZS block 33# and α-β Al2O3 ramming mass barely produce any blistering or stones and cause no contamination to glass liquid. They are usually used in glass contact areas and other demanding areas.

Fused cast alumina block α-β is generally used in the sidewall and paving block of the refining zone and cooling zone. Under the paving block, α-β Al2O3 ramming mass is used. Then under the two layer, a layer of large fireclay bricks are used.

Fused cast AZS block 33# is used in the glass contact part of the sidewall. The breast wall, the part of sidewall that is not in direct contact with glass liquid, always employs fused cast alumina block α-β.

Except those demanding areas, other parts (crown, suspended wall, channel, etc.)always use silica bricks.

The cooling zone generally achieves the cooling of glass liquid by radiating the heat through its surface, so insulating materials are always not used in this zone except the channel and the tank bottom.
DATE: GMT - 06/09/2015 | 01:00 AM    


registered: GMT - 04/17/2015
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Go To: Subject: Fused Cast AZS Brick With Dense Structure For Glass Furnace Use
What's Fused Cast ?
The term Fused Cast refers to a manufacturing process in which the ceramic bonding is obtained by the solidification of a mixture which has been melted in an electric furnace and cast in liquid state into molds.

What does AZS mean?
Fused Cast AZS Brick is also called electro Zircon corundum brick, which is abbreviated as AZS because it contains Al2O3-ZrO2-SiO2. Acording to the different content of Zirconia from 33%-41%, fused cast AZS blocks can be divided into three types AZS—33#,AZS—36# and AZS—41#. Fused cast AZS block is made from pure alumina powder and Zircon sand (composed of 65% zirconia and 34% SiO2). After Alumina powder and zircon sand melting in electric furnace, they are cast into various molds and cool themselves down to become white solid.

Where is Fused cast AZS used?
Fused cast AZS refractory materials are among the best, thus being widely used in the structure of glass melting furnaces. And different types are used in different parts of glass melting furnaces as each type of fused cast AZS has a different corrosion resistance. To give you only one example, the fused cast AZS refractory class containing 36% ZrO2 has an excellent resistance to corrosion. This makes it a very good choice for the glass contact parts of the melters. It is also very effective in paving blocks and side walls. The 17% ZrO2 Super Low Exudation is very good because it allows eliminating the vitreous phase exudation. The result is a higher quality of the glass.

As you can see, each class of materials has its characteristics that make it better for certain processes and terrible for others. Only a team of skilled technicians can thoroughly assess all parameters and recommend the perfect solution for each process.

Zhengzhou Sunrise Refractory Co., Ltd- -AZS series blocks have passed the ISO international certified. High purity raw material, scientific formula, advanced technology and professional guide all contribute to our qualified azs blocks production. Over 30 years producing and marketing experience, we have developed stable customer base overseas and kept long-term cooperation. Need refractories for high temperature furnace fuel? Or any further information, Contact us, We will do our best to help you.
DATE: GMT - 05/08/2015 | 05:45 AM    


registered: GMT - 04/17/2015
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Go To: Subject: Profile Of A Glass Furnace Which Can Withstand High Temperature
Furnaces consist of three main parts, the melter, refiner and regenerators or checkers. Most furnaces are designed to use natural gas but which also can transform to use fuels-oil, propane and electricity if necessary. The size of furnaces range from about 450 to more than 1,400 square feet of melter surface.

A furnace which is properly operated and well-maintained will last for 10 years or more,and maybe only just need one partial repair. The furnace will produce over 1,000 tons of glass per each square foot of melter surface over the life of the furnace.

The Melter is a rectangular basin in which the actual melting and fining take place. In a side-fired furnace, the batch is charged into the furnace through the doghouse, which is an extension of the melter, protruding from the back wall. Along each side of the melter, above glass level, there are three to seven ports, which contain the natural gas burners ,combustion air and exhaust gases.

The melter basin is separated from the refiner by the bridge wall (throat end wall). Glass passes from the melter to the refiner through the throat, which is a water-cooled tunnel that extends through the bridge wall.

The Refiner acts as a holding basin where the glass is allowed to cool to a uniform temperature before entering the forehearths. The melter and refiner are covered by crowns to contain the heat.
DATE: GMT - 05/07/2015 | 05:33 AM    


registered: GMT - 04/17/2015
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Go To: Subject: How To Choose A Good Refractory For Glass Furnace Using?

There are many kinds of refractory products, when we try to choose refractory products, we may always think which one is the best for our furnace? In fact, we should know that it is not always the higher price the better, what matters is that choose the cost effective ones, thus we can get good quality refractory products with competitive price and also help to save some money. Here are some suggestions for your reference while you choose refractory products.

1. Refractoriness of high-temperature kilns: Refractoriness of 1580-1770 degrees select ordinary refractory, refractoriness of 1770-2000 select advanced refractory, refractoriness above 2000 degrees you need choose grade refractories. Even the same furnace, different part of a furnace is required different fire brick.

2. Chemical property: In general, there are three kinds of refractories which are acid refractories, neutral refractories, alkali refractories,. In order to avoid unnecessary loss, we should make sure that the refractory we choose for our furnace can not produce chemical reaction to the material we produce.

3. Different industry and different position : Many industries need refractory and different industries have different requirements for refractory, even the same industry and the same furnace, different position of a furnace is required different fire brick.

4. Pre-assemble performance: Pre-assemble is needed to provide by refractory manufacturers, which can calculate the required specifications and quantity of refractories. At the same time we can ask the refractory manufacturer to provide refractory samples, thus can avoid shoddy version.

5.Manufacturer: There are thousands of refractory manufacturers at present market. Normally you will choose some famous refractory manufacturer, but at the same time you will undertake high risk, as you usually can not get price concessions,and maybe you can not get the good understanding and service from the manufacturer. However, some refractory manufacturers who is probably not famous, if only they have ISO certification and long history established factory, they can also guarantee the same quality, what’s more this manufacturer can give you price concessions. So what is really important is that choose the cost effective.

6. Service: The most important thing when select a refractory manufacturer is whether they have good before and after sales who can provide professional technical advice. If it is convenience, you can directly go to visit the factory of refractory manufacturers.
DATE: GMT - 05/06/2015 | 06:31 AM    


registered: GMT - 04/17/2015
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Go To: Subject: The Development Of Glass Furnace
A glass furnace is a specialized furnace that used in glass production. Raw materials are heated together in a glass furnace to their melting point, when they fuse into molten glass, this liquid can then be formed into the shapes, then cools and solidifies.

Glass making can be dated back thousands of years. Glass appears to have been produced as far back as 1500 BC by the Egyptians and perhaps the Phoenicians. Glass using and manufacturing developments have gone through an interesting evolution throughout human history, influenced by many cultures including those in Africa, China and Europe.

Most early glass was formed through glass blowing, Glass blowing was invented during the 1st century BC by the glassmakers of Syria. This revolutionary technique made glass production easier and quickly, so glass blowing quickly became a favorite glass made method. Even it is early, but the processes were complicated, because blown glass generally takes a round shape. Some sheet glass was made by cutting and shaping glass cylinders, a process that had to be completed quickly after the glass was removed from the glass furnace. The process was imperfect, and the quality of the panes varied greatly until better industrial processes were created in the 20th century

In glassblowing, molten glass is contained in a specially shaped glass furnace. The glassblower collects a quantity of liquid glass on a hollow rod, and then causes the glass to expand by blowing air through the unheated end of the rod. The glassblower keeps the glass at optimum temperature by working quickly and by reheating the glass in a glory hole, a special opening in the glass furnace for this purpose. Once formed, the glass is placed in another special glass furnace so it will cool slowly to room temperature without breaking, a process called annealing.

Modern industrial glass manufacturing works on much the same principles, just on a larger scale. Sheet glass or window glass is made by heating chemicals in a glass furnace, then delivering the molten glass onto the surface of a river of molten tin or other metal; this process is known as float glass, because the glass “floats” on the surface of the metal. The liquid metal has a perfectly level surface, and the glass imitates this property as it slowly cools. Pressurized nitrogen keeps the top surface of the glass level, and rollers allow for a range of thicknesses. Once the glass has annealed, it can be cut into sheets or panes by special machinery.
DATE: GMT - 05/05/2015 | 05:25 AM    
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